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.... Pp. 758-767. (a) A compelled surgical intrusion into an individual's body for evidence implicates expectations of privacy and security of such magnitude that the...skin depends on a case-by-case approach, in which the individual's interests in privacy and security are weighed against society's interests in conducting the procedure to obtain evidence for fairly...give up some part of his interest in privacy and security to advance the community's vital interests in law enforcement; such a search is generally "reasonable" in the Amendment's terms...

...security and privacy. Commission argues that such losses are not compensable in a condemnation proceeding because, like increased noise and traffic, they are general damages, shared in common by all..., inconvenience and, in this case, loss of security and privacy, while not individual, separable elements of compensation in and of themselves, may be considered as factors which contribute to a diminution...market value. He ruled "as a basis for consequential damage, I'm going to allow it, [evidence of loss of privacy and security], but as far as any specific damages, I will sustain the objection." In...

...safety of its roadways does not outweigh the resulting intrusion on the privacy and security of the persons detained. Given the physical and psychological intrusion visited upon the occupants of a vehicle...law enforcement agents, in order "`to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions. . . .'" Marshall v...resulting intrusion on the privacy and security of the persons detained. IV We have only recently considered the legality of...

.... Rather, we noted that "[t]he basic purpose of the constitutional protections against unlawful searches and seizures is to safeguard the privacy and security of each and every person against all arbitrary...intrusions by government. Therefore, any time an intrusion on the security and privacy of the individual is undertaken with intent to harass or is based upon mere whim, caprice or idle curiosity, the.... We still believe that police encounters that are not seizures or arrests for constitutional purposes should be evaluated under the De Bour test. The interests in privacy and security that led us...

.... I The central purpose of the Fourth Amendment is to safeguard the privacy and security of...countless decisions of this Court, is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials...this case elevates the conservation of property interests — indeed mere possibilities of property interests — above the privacy and security interests...

.... — The fourth amendment imposes a standard of reasonableness on police officer's interactions with the public in order to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions...`reasonableness'" on their interaction with the public in order "`to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions'" and "`overbearing or harassing' police conduct...General, on brief), for appellee. (1) Criminal Procedure — Search and Seizure — Seizures of People. — The fourth...

...Amendment, which is enforceable against the States through the Fourteenth, through its prohibition of "unreasonable" searches and seizures is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against...safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials. The Fourth Amendment thus gives concrete expression to a right of the people which "is basic to a...reasonable security and freedom from surveillance. When the right of privacy must reasonably yield to the right of search is, as a rule, to be decided by a judicial officer, not by a policeman or...

...Amendment, as recognized in countless decisions of this Court, is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials...." 387 U.S., at 528. Because the individual's interest in privacy and personal security "suffers whether the government's motivation is to investigate violations of...invasion which the search entails." Camara v. Municipal Court, supra, at 536-537. On one side of the balance are arrayed the individual's legitimate expectations of privacy and personal security; on...

...privacy and security. [2] Searches and Seizures — Administrative Search — Warrant — Lack of Opportunity To Consent — Effect. In the absence of a showing of immediate and.... [1, 2] The purpose of the Fourth Amendment's prohibition of unreasonable searches is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against governmental invasion...County, No. 854440, Jerome M. Johnson, J., suppressed the evidence and dismissed the action on May 14, 1980. Court of Appeals: Holding that the property owner should have been...

...right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures," tolerates such an intrusion on privacy and personal security. ...in determining whether Riley suffered a serious loss of privacy and personal security through the police action? In...safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials." See also Marshall v. Barlow's, Inc...

...deprivation of her constitutional right to privacy and security of property. Ketchum did not allege any special relationship between herself and Hampton or between herself and the defendants...) against the County of Alameda and several county officers for their alleged gross negligence in failing to maintain security at an Alameda rehabilitation facility. Ketchum appeals the district court's.... FACTUAL AND PROCEDURAL BACKGROUND In 1981 James Hampton was incarcerated as a minimum security inmate at the Santa Rita Rehabilitation Fac...

...obtaining a warrant, of an officer making an arrest. But the basic principle, the constitutional safeguard that, with room for exceptions, assures citizens the privacy and security of their homes unless a...safeguard that assures citizens the privacy and security of their homes unless a judicial officer determines that it must be overridden, is applicable not only in case of entry to search for property, but...burglary to the Sacramento police. Turner, who was a licensed private investigator and former security guard, also decided to investigate his own case. His inquiries led him to two...

...the prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures under the Fourth Amendment is to "safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions of government officials...safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions," is entirely fulfilled when a traffic stop is initiated because the...violation of law has occurred." Whren, 517 U.S. at ___, 116 S.Ct. at 1772. The danger to individual liberty and privacy posed by police...

.... THE DUTY OF PROTECTING THE CONFIDENTIALITY OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED ON A TAPE IN THE CUSTODY OF THE STATE AUDITOR AND INSPECTOR RESTS UPON THE STATE AUDITOR AND INSPECTOR. (PRIVACY AND SECURITY, RECO...— AUDIT ** (1) THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE OKLAHOMA PUBLIC EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM IS REQUIRED TO DELIVER POSSESSION OF THE MAGNETIC TAPE AS REQUESTED BY THE STATE AUDITOR AND INSPECTOR FOR AUDIT...PURPOSES. (2) FROM SUCH TIME AS CUSTODY OF THE TAPE IS ASSUMED BY THE STATE AUDITOR AND INSPECTOR, THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF THE PUBLIC EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM IS `NOT' REQUIRED TO DO ANYTHING...

...and Frisk. — The essential purpose of the fourth amendment is to impose a standard of reasonableness upon the exercise of discretion by government officials in order to safeguard the privacy and security of...order `to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions.'" Delaware v. Prouse, 440 U.S. 648, 653-54 (1979...public interest and appellant's right to personal security and privacy tilts in favor of freedom from police interference." Id. at 52. Upon review of the record in the present...

...property does not outweigh the privacy and security interests protected by the Fourth Amendment, I fail to see how preservation can even be asserted as a justification for the search in this case. In...vandalized property, and to guard the police from danger. In light of these strong governmental interests and the diminished expectation of privacy in an automobile, we upheld the search. In reaching this...dissent selectively quotes from the police directive concerning the care and security of vehicles taken into police custody. The dissent fails to mention that the directive establishes several conditions...

...effects, and therefore is inevitably associated with the expectation of privacy. Once police have seized a suitcase from an automobile, the extent of its mobility is in no way affected by the place...and security of persons in two important ways. First, it guarantees "[t]he right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers.... But even if wholly innocent, some persons might well prefer not to have the contents of their luggage exposed in a public place. They may stand on their right to privacy and require a search warrant...

...Fourth Amendment is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasion by government officials. Stanley v. Georgia, 394 U.S.... Robert O. Smith, Dist. Atty., Lawrence Wells and Phoebe Lester, Austin, and Jim D. Vollers, State's Atty., Austin, for the State...the offense of unlawful possession of a narcotic drug, to-wit: marihuana. Punishment was assessed by the court at two years, and probation was granted. On March 12, 1970, officers...

...safeguard the privacy and security of each and every person against all arbitrary intrusions by government. Therefore, any time an intrusion on the security and privacy of the individual ...and personal security (at p 111). Thus, we must consider first whether or not the police action was justified in its inception and secondly whether or not that action was reasonably related in scope to...restrictions on the authority to approach individuals would hamper the police in the performance of their other vital tasks. This is not to say that constitutional rights to privacy and freedom from...

...the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials." The officials may be health, fire, or building inspectors. Their purpose may be to locate and abate a...the petitioner's brief, his "actions show that he has no expectation of privacy" because "he has abandoned those premises within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment." And if the fire had other causes...accidental destruction. And, of course, the sooner the officials complete their duties, the less will be their subsequent interference with the privacy and the recovery efforts of the victims. For these...

...). The question is whether in all the circumstances of this on-the-street encounter, his right to personal security was violated by an unreasonable search and seizure. We would be...urged, would constitute an abdication of judicial control over, and indeed an encouragement of, substantial interference with liberty and personal security by police officers whose judgment is necessarily...trenches upon personal security without the objective evidentiary justification which the Constitution requires. When such conduct is identified, it must be condemned by the judiciary and its fruits must...

...Wolf v. Colorado, 338 U.S. 25, 27-28: "The security of one's privacy against arbitrary intrusion by...approaches and slight deviations from legal modes of procedure. This can only be obviated by adhering to the rule that constitutional provisions for the security of person and property should be..., and by revolution on this continent — a right of personal security against arbitrary intrusions by official power. If times have changed, reducing...

...Amendment's purpose of safeguarding "the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by government officials" is so fundamental as to require, except in "certain carefully defined...oppressive interference by enforcement officials with the privacy and personal security of individuals," United States v. Martinez..., 19 U.S.C. § 482, respondent was entitled to be free from unreasonable search and seizure. But not only is the expectation of privacy less at the border than in the interior, see...

...apartment, knocked on the door, and, when it was opened by petitioner Colon, entered the apartment without requesting or receiving permission. The agents then conducted a limited security check of..., the agents discovered, inter alia, cocaine and records of narcotics transactions. These items were seized, together with those observed during the security check. The District Court granted...was under arrest and that a search warrant for the apartment was being obtained. Following this brief exchange in the living room, the agents conducted a limited security check...

.... 25 (1949). Although that decision held that the security of one's person and privacy protected by the Fourth Amendment was "implicit in `the concept of ordered liberty' and as such enforceable...invasions of privacy and, on the other, establishing procedures under which criminal defendants are "acquitted or convicted on the basis of... commitment to protecting individual liberty and privacy. It was for that very reason that the Framers of the Bill of Rights insisted that law enforcement efforts be perman...

...Fourth Amendment is to safeguard individuals from unreasonable government invasions of legitimate privacy interests, and not simply those interests inside the four walls of the home. Pp. 6-11...on whether a warrant has been obtained. In all other situations, the Government contends, less significant privacy values are at stake, and the reasonableness of a government intrusion should depend.... . . ." Brief for United States 30. It is not readily apparent how the Government's contention that the Warrant Clause applies to high privacy areas, both within and without the home, can be reconciled with its...

..., 923-924 (E.D.Pa., 1967) (Explosion of firecracker in Federal Mint precipitated warrantless search of all employees' lockers in order to maintain the order and security of the Mint; held valid, and coins found could be...). See, Aynes, "Katz and the Fourth Amendment: A Reasonable Expectation of Privacy or, A Man's Home Is His Fort," 23 Cleve.St.L.Rev. 63, 64 (19.... . . is that there is a twofold requirement, first that a person have exhibited an actual (subjective) expectation of privacy and, second, that the expectation be one that society is...

.... 177, 179-180 (1974). "The seizure of property in plain view involves no invasion of privacy and is presumptively reasonable, assuming that there is probable cause to associate the property with...be said generally, if not categorically, that a limited search of a man's person is a lesser invasion of his privacy than a search of his home and papers. It may reasonably be.... October 26, 1984. Present: GREANEY, C.J., ARMSTRONG, SMITH, JJ. INDICTMENT found and...

...invasions of personal privacy that shock the conscience, and the admission of evidence so obtained must be suppressed as a matter of due process, entirely aside from the Fourth Amendment. See...that "the direction taken by decisions following Spinelli poorly serves `[t]he most basic function of any government': `to provide for the security of the individual and of his property.... Ficaro and Morton E. Friedman, Assistant Attorneys General, Daniel M. Harris, and James B. Zagel. With him on the briefs on the original argument were Messrs. Fahner and Harris...

...home is also a grave concern, not only to the individual but to a society which chooses to dwell in reasonable security and freedom from surveillance. When the right of privacy must reasonably yield...with the Fourth Amendment and why the reasons for upholding warrantless arrests in a public place do not apply to warrantless invasions of the privacy of the home...warrant," the dissenters reasoned that an arrest of the person involves an even greater invasion of privacy and should therefore be...

...dwell in reasonable security and freedom from surveillance. When the right of privacy must reasonably yield to the right of search is, as a rule, to be decided by a judicial officer, not by a...breaking of his doors, and the rummaging of his drawers, that constitutes the essence of the offense; but it is the invasion of his indefeasible right of personal security, personal liberty and...directly addressed to the privacy of our citizens, but it speaks in indistinguishable terms about the freedom of both persons and property from unreasonable seizures. A warrant is required in the search...

...recognize expectation of privacy in identity of telephone numbers called from another telephone). I therefore must decide what "sense of security" should exist in society, and I must do so at least in.... The means that Ross employed to store the contents of pouch and bag, it seems to us, were calculated to secure the privacy of his possessions..., Tracking Katz: Beepers, Privacy and the Fourth Amendment, 86 Yale L.J. 1461, 1472-77 (1977) (indicating that the concept "expectation of privacy" in Fourth Amendment cases is less than...

...the Fourth Amendment, the Court has stated, "is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by government officials...S.Ct. 367, 369, 92 L.Ed. 436.] The Fourth Amendment allows intrusions upon privacy under these circumstances, and there is no..., 69 S.Ct. 1359, 93 L.Ed. 1782 (1949), had protected the "security of one's privacy against arbitrary intrusion by the pol...

...not presented by this case. See also the discussion as to "national security" and "executive branch" wiretaps in the concurring opinions of Justices Douglas and Brennan...these investigative tools for the purposes of protecting the national security and conducting the nation's affairs, 18 U.S.C. § 2511(3...the warrantless wiretaps at the center of this litigation were authorized by the Attorney General and conducted by the defendants ostensibly for "national security...

...enough to an arrest that the normal level of probable cause is necessary before the interests of privacy and personal security must give way...make Fourth Amendment "seizures" reasonable can be replaced by a test balancing the limited violation of individual privacy against the opposing interests in crime prevention and detection and in the...rash and unreasonable interferences with privacy" and in "seek[ing] to give fair leeway for enforcing the law in the community's protection...

...people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated . . . ." The Amendment guarantees the privacy, dignity, and security of...text of the Fourth Amendment" and predicting that the majority's "Rohrschach-like `balancing test'" portended "a dangerous weakening of the purpose of the Fourth Amendment to protect the privacy and security of...person to submit to the piercing of his skin by a hypodermic needle so that his blood may be extracted significantly intrudes on the "personal privacy and dignity against unwarranted intrusion by the State" against which the Fourth ...

.... No protected privacy interest remains in contraband in a container once government officers lawfully (as here) have opened that container and identified its contents as illegal. The simple act of...resealing the container to enable the police to make a controlled delivery does not operate to revive or restore the lawfully invaded privacy rights, and the subsequent reopening of the container is not a...changed during the brief period that it was out of sight of the surveilling officer. Thus, reopening the container did not intrude on any legitimate expectation of privacy and did not violate the...

...the Fourth Amendment, therefore, we must be certain that none of the techniques so excluded threatens the areas of personal security and privacy that the Amendment is intended to protect...and his visual inspection of their contents enabled him to learn nothing that had not previously been learned during the private search. It infringed no legitimate expectation of privacy and hence was...respondents' privacy. Protecting the risk of misdescription hardly enhances any legitimate privacy interest, and is not protected by the Fourth Amendment...

...privacy and security. See...privacy and security). We do not undertake the metaphysical task of determining the relative intrusiveness of the two alternatives...personal privacy and security." The majority cites a single inapposite case, Winston v. Lee, to support its erroneous proposition. This...

...location of the marihuana patches evinced a reasonable expectation of privacy, and that therefore the open fields doctrine did not apply. The Maine Supreme Judicial Court affirmed...whether reasonable expectations of privacy were violated would not provide a workable accommodation between the needs of law enforcement and the interests protected by the Fourth Amendment. Such an ad...enforced. Pp. 181-182. (d) Steps taken to protect privacy, such as planting the marihuana on secluded land and erecting fences and "No Trespassing" signs around the...

...him on the brief were Frank J. Kelley, Attorney General, and Leonard J. Malinowski, Assistant Attorney General. David A. Strauss argued the cause for the...United States as amicus curiae urging reversal. With him on the brief were Solicitor General Lee, Assistant Attorney General Jensen, and Deputy Solicitor General Frey.... David Crump, Wayne W. Schmidt, and James P. Manak filed a brief for the Gulf Great Plains Lega...

...Fourth Amendment is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by government officials." South Dakota v..., squarely presents the elusive expectation of privacy issue. If Dunn's fourth amendment protections were abrogated by the entries on November 5 and 6, the evidence discovered at that time and later seized...of rights and the right most valued by civilized men. To protect that right, every unjustifiable intrusion by the Government upon the privacy of the individual, whatever the means employed must be...

...: the machine reveals the presence of metal objects in areas under personal control as to which the individual maintains a reasonable expectation of privacy and freedom from governmental inspection...of all expectations of privacy at airports, such a concept would sanction an erosion of the Fourth Amendment by the simple and expedient device of its universal violation...and immediate beneficiaries of the screening system; security precautions increase the likelihood of safe arrival at their chosen destination. If for no other reason than the airline's economic stake...

..." petitioner. Held: 1. The Government's eavesdropping activities violated the privacy upon which petitioner justifiably relied while using the telephone booth and thus...constitutional "right to privacy." That Amendment protects individual privacy against certain kinds of governmental intrusion, but its protections go further, and often have nothing to do with privacy at all...Government's activities in electronically listening to and recording the petitioner's words violated the privacy upon which he justifiably relied while using the telephone booth and thus constituted a "search...

.... (a) There is no rational distinction between a search for "mere evidence" and one for an "instrumentality" in terms of the privacy which is safeguarded by the Fourth Amendment; nor does the...common law. We have recognized that the principal object of the Fourth Amendment is the protection of privacy rather than property, and have increasingly discarded fictional and procedural barriers rested...; Silverman v. United States, 365 U.S. 505, 511. This shift in emphasis from property to privacy has come about through a subtle interplay of substantive and pr...

...dwell in reasonable security and freedom from surveillance. When the right of privacy must reasonably yield to the right of search is, as a rule, to be decided by a judicial officer, not by a policeman.... Interposition of a warrant requirement is designed not to shield "wrongdoers," but to secure a measure of privacy and a sense of personal security throughout our society. The Fourth...devices in listening to and recording Katz' words, thereby violating the privacy on which he justifiably relied while using the telephone in...

...decisions of this Court, is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials." Id., at 528. Thus, the fact that the professed purpose of the.... Robert L. Shevin, Attorney General, and A. S. Johnston, Assistant Attorney General, filed a br...a service revolver which respondent (who had identified himself as a Chicago policeman) was thought to possess, made a warrantless search of the car and found in the trunk several items, some bloodied...

..., 23 Rutgers L.Rev. 319, 337-339 (1969); Note, The "National Security Wiretap"; Presidential Prerogative or Judicial Responsibility, 45 S.Cal.L.Rev. 888, 902-905 (1972); Comment, Privacy and Political Freedom: Application o...." For a description of "bugging" and "wiretapping" devices, see, e. g., A. Westin, ...of our Government has undertaken under the rubric of "national security." Undoubtedly the President, our Chief Executive and Commander-in-Chief of our Armed Forces, is imbued by the Constitution with...

..., 89 S.Ct. at 2047 (White, J., dissenting) ("the invasion and disruption of a man's life and privacy which stem from his arrest are ordinarily far greate.... 1782 (1949). To hold otherwise would be to present occupants with an unfair dilemma, to say the least — either open the door and thereby forfeit cherished privacy interests or refuse to open the door and...." . . . . . . . . If nothing additional were required, a man's right of privacy in his home would be no...

...the Gun Control Act pose only limited threats to the dealer's justifiable expectations of privacy. When a dealer chooses to engage in this pervasively regulated business and to accept a federal...acceptance," of the absence of other methods for vindicating the public interest in preventing or abating dangerous conditions, and of the limited invasion of privacy occasioned by administrative... No. 71-6278. Argued March 19 and 28, 1973 Decided June 21, 1973 James A. Chanoux, and John J...

.... Nevertheless, after declaring that the "security of one's privacy against arbitrary intrusion by the police" is "implicit in the concept of ordered liberty' and as such..., that constitutes the essence of the offence; but it is the invasion of his indefeasible right of personal security, personal liberty and private... "constitutional provisions for the security of person and property should be liberally construed. . . . It is the duty of courts to be watchful for the constitutional rights of...

...separate Fourth Amendment interests. First, respondent had a protected interest in maintaining his personal security and privacy. Terry allows this interest to be overcome, and authorizes a...only to an invasion of his personal security and privacy, but also to an independent dispossession of his personal effects based simply on reasonable suspicion. It is difficult to understand how this...general rule that the Fourth Amendment itself has already performed the constitutional balance between police objectives and personal privacy...

...based upon the fact that "[o]ne has a lesser expectation of privacy in a motor vehicle because its function is transportation and it seldom serves as one's residence or as the repository of personal..., usually, inherently mobile and, thus, presents a continuing possibility of being moved and because a person's expectation of privacy in an automobile is significantly less than one's expectation of...substance with intent to sell and illegal possession of four ounces or more of a cannabis-type substance, brought to the Superior Court in the judicial district of New London and tried to the court...

...individual but to a society which chooses to dwell in reasonable security and freedom from surveillance. When the right of privacy must reasonably yield to the right of search is, as a rule, to be decided...prolonged period of time, constitutes an intrusion into liberty and privacy interests, protected by the fourth amendment, by exposing "what [a person] seeks to preserve as private, even in an area...and to accept a license which is conditioned upon such warrantless intrusion and inspection, he does so with full knowledge of the restrictions on his privacy. He is also free not to submit to such...

...permissible and what limitations should be placed upon such activities. . . . To provide the necessary security against unreasonable intrusions upon the private lives of...enforce the law. The right of privacy was deemed too precious to entrust to the discretion of those whose job is the detection of crime and the arrest of criminals. . . . And so the Constitution...requires a magistrate to pass on the desires of the police before they violate the privacy of the home. We cannot be true to that constitutional requirement and excuse the absence of a search warrant...

.... "This guarantee of protection against unreasonable searches and seizures [the Fourth Amendment] * * * marks the right of privacy as one of the unique values of our civilization ...the police before they violate the privacy of the home. We cannot be true to that constitutional requirement and excuse the absence of a search warrant without a showing by those who seek...leave the people's homes secure only in the discretion of police officers. Crime, even in the privacy of one's own quarters, is, of course, of grave concern to society, and the law allows such crime to...

...to say that one who is legally taken into police custody has a lessened right of privacy in his person, and quite another to argue that he also has a lessened right of privacy in his entire house. Pp...that the privacy of a person's home and property may not be totally sacrificed in the name of maximum simplicity in enforcement of the criminal law. See...constitutionality of a particular search is a question of reasonableness and depends on "a balance between the public interest and the individual's right to personal security free from arbitrary interference by law...

...Rakas, a defendant must establish a legitimate and reasonable expectation of privacy in the premises searched or the property seized. A defendant who does not have actual standing may still have...the adjacent residence, may have had a sufficient proprietary or possessory interest in the premises to establish a reasonable expectation of privacy in the common areas searched, and thus have.... These characteristics — a lessened expectation of privacy and inherent mobility — represent the twofold rationale behind the automobile exception to the warrant requirement. They equally support...

...individual's interest in privacy and personal security suffers whether the government's motivation is to investigate violations of criminal laws or breaches of other statutory or regulatory standards..., 19 L.Ed.2d 576 (1967), "the fourth amendment protects people, not places." This protection is necessary to safeguard individual privacy and dignity, values...: searches and seizures. A "search" has occurred, for purposes of the fourth amendment, when the government infringes upon "an expectation of privacy that society is prepared to consider reasonable...

...-seizure powers in order to prevent arbitrary and oppressive interference by enforcement officials with the privacy and personal security of individuals. See.... United States, 335 U.S. 451 (1948). As we have noted earlier, one's expectation of privacy in an automobile and of freedom in its operation are significantly different from the traditional...expectation of privacy and freedom in one's residence. United States v. Ortiz, 422 U.S., at 896 n. 2; see...

...dangerous weapons in the national, State and city courthouses. The court will and does take notice of these statistics and of the substantial need to take the most stringent safety and security...knowledge and expertise" (United States v Mendenhall, 446 U.S. 544). The reasonableness of the security measures promulgated by the State involves a...diminishment of the citizen's expectation of privacy upon entrance into a courthouse facility arising out of the legitimate State interests and attendant exigencies...

.... 1782 (1949), that the fourth amendment applies to the states. There the Court said that "[t]he security of one's privacy against arbitrary intrusion by the police . . . is basic to a free society..., and that "the ruptured privacy of the victims' homes and effects cannot be restored." 381 U.S. at 637.... Charles A. Graddick, Atty. Gen., and Thomas R. Allison, Asst. Atty. Gen., for...

...of the evidence coupled with exigent or emergent circumstances affecting the safety and security of such evidence, including its preservation in the same form. Such a seizure may be valid even though...control for such purpose must be determined by examining the particular facts and circumstances to ascertain whether the transfer terminated his reasonable expectation of privacy therein...a patient in a hospital security room, plus admitting the clothes into the trial evidence against him, violated state (Const. art. 1, § 7) and federal (U.S. Const. amend. 4) constitutional prohibition...

...privacy, with the specific intent of discovering evidence of a crime, constitutes a "search" within the meaning of the fourth and fourteenth amendments. Cf. Cady v. Dombrowski...amendment safeguards "[t]he right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects." Invasions of the privacy of the individual do not vary in the severity of their impact with.... 18-19 n.): "In our view the sounder course is to recognize that the Fourth Amendment governs all intrusions by agents of the public upon personal security, and to make the scope of the particular...

...but to a society which chooses to dwell in reasonable security and freedom from surveillance. When the right of privacy must reasonably yield to the right of search is, as a rule, to be decided by a...official sanction is a serious threat to personal and family security. And even accepting Frank's rather remarkable premise, inspections of the kind we are here considering do in fact jeopardize "self...without a warrant would reduce the Amendment to a nullity and leave the people's homes secure only in the discretion of police officers. Crime, even in the privacy of one's own quarters, is, of course...

...G.C., 121 N.J. Super. 108, 114 (J.D.R.C. 1972). The "basic purpose of [the Fourth Amendment] is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by.... We reiterate the proposition that "[t]he basic purpose of [the Fourth] Amendment, as recognized in countless decisions of [the Supreme] Court, is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals..., school authorities frequently have a duty to invade an individual public school student's privacy to determine whether there have been infractions of, and to enforce, school regulations. Nonetheless...

..., 98 S.Ct. 1816].) "The basic purpose of this [Fourth] Amendment . . . is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by gover...weakening of the purpose of the Fourth Amendment to protect the privacy and security of our citizens. Moreover, even if this Court's historic understanding of the Fourth Amendment were mistaken and a...balancing test of some kind were appropriate, any such test that gave adequate weight to the privacy and security interests protected by the Fourth Amendment would not reach the preordained result [of...

...the police to interfere with the security of the person did not, standing alone, automatically confer the right to interfere with the security and privacy of his house. Hence, the mere fact of an...be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime. . . . When the right of privacy must reasonably..., therefore, not easily weighed one against the other. And the competing interests we are protecting — the individual's interest in remaining free from unnecessarily intrusive invasions of privacy and...

..., 528 S.W.2d 234 (Tex.Cr.App. 1975); W. LaFave, 2 Search Seizure section 7.2(d) (1978). The reason is that the search and seizure amendments of our constitutions protect people's rights to..., 19 L.Ed.2d 576 (1967), and there are different expectations of privacy in different parts of an automobile. In the exterior of an automobile there is no reasonable expectati...authority to the contention that the search of the trunk was an "inventory search," and argues that it was conducted solely for the purpose of insuring "the security of the contents of the vehicle prior...

...Fifth Avenue and 35th Street in New York City, Police Officers O'Malley and Kelly were signalled by Theodore Bielefeld, the store's assistant director of security. He informed the officers that a... had a legitimate expectation of privacy with respect to the contents of the briefcases, and we must apply the teachings of Rakas in determining what...installment loan book, and a social security status card. . . . There is, however, no evidence in the record that in carrying out their established inventory duties the Vermillion police do other than search...

...names of Minneci and Taylor on a 12:20 p. m. Western Airlines flight to Anchorage. After purchasing their tickets they left their suitcases in the security area and went back outside the security area to...: "In our view the sounder course is to recognize that the Fourth Amendment governs all intrusions by agents of the public upon personal security, and to make the scope...that some seizures admittedly covered by the Fourth Amendment constitute such limited intrusions on the personal security of those detained and are justified by such substantial law enforcement...

...to safeguard domestic security must be weighed against the potential danger that unreasonable surveillances pose to individual privacy and free expression. Pp. 314-315. (b) The freedoms o...Government to protect the domestic security, and the potential danger posed by unreasonable surveillance to individual privacy and free expression.... If the legitimate need of Government to safeguard domestic security requires the use of electronic surveillance, the question is whether the needs of citizens for privacy and free expression may not...

...constitute a search, it seems that the same privacy was invaded as if the entry and subsequent conduct by police were given the label of a search. Therefore, the essential...consent is given or an emergency exists. And if such entry is made, the occupant's right to privacy is invaded and evidence resulting from such invasion is inadmissible in a court of law...public interest required that personal privacy be invadable for the detection of crime, and the Amendment provided the sole and only permissible process by which the right of privacy could be invaded. To...

...of privacy was deemed too precious to entrust to the discretion of those whose job is the detection of crime and the arrest of criminals. * * * And so the Constitution requires a magistrate to pass...on the desires of the police before they violate the privacy of the home. We cannot be true to that constitutional requirement and excuse the absence of a search warrant without a showing by those who...which the sanctity of his home may be broken by official authority, for the possibility of criminal entry under the guise of official sanction is a serious threat to personal and family security...

..."`safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials'" (quoting Camara v. Mm. Ct, 387 U.S...privacy and includes at least some notion of place and security. See Katz, 389 U.S. at 350, 353...pressures" favoring expansive police power at the expense of privacy and liberty. Id. (quoting Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39...

...officials, including law enforcement agents, in order `"to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions...(1973). The basic and essential purpose of these provisions is to protect the individual against unreasonable governmental intrusions into his privacy, whenever and wherever his expectation of privacy...considered is the existence, extent and legitimacy of the citizen's right to expectation of privacy under the circumstances. U.S. v. Chadwick, supra; South Dakota v. Opperman...

...individual but to a society which chooses to dwell in reasonable security and freedom from surveillance. When the right of privacy must reasonably yield to the right of search is as a rule, to be decided...safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by government officials, the Court reiterated that "except in certain carefully defined classes of cases," a search of private..., assures citizens the privacy and security of their homes unless a judicial officer determines that it must be overridden, is applicable not only in case of entry to search for property, but also in...

...arbitrary intrusions by the government into an individual's privacy, dignity, and security. Camara v. Municipal Court, 387 U.S. 523, 528...). Unlike the "substantially less intrusive" searches in these cases, the blood, breath and urine tests in question here entail full-scale searches directly impacting on the individual's privacy. Even...impairment before forcing him or her to endure a blood test: The interests in human dignity and privacy which the Fourth Amendment protects forbid any such...

...: Right of Privacy. The right of the people to privacy is recognized and shall not be infringed. The legislature shall implement this section...physical security in the airport and parking areas. He carried a sidearm. When the cargo handler opened the shipment, he believed it contained drugs. This is what led him to call the airport security office...may be conducted. Such regulations would go far in determining the community's view of "reasonable conduct" and would stand the best chance of reconciling the student's legitimate privacy interests with...

...reason is found in the "basic purpose of this Amendment . . . [which] is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials." Camara...those provisions depends upon the specific enforcement needs and privacy guarantees of each statute. Pp. 321-322. 424 F. Supp. 437...scheme of the Act requires warrantless searches, and that the restrictions on search discretion contained in the Act and its regulations already protect as much privacy as a warrant would. The Secretary...

...Amendment protection and the various exceptions to the warrant requirement relied upon by the government to justify the search. We hold that appellant had a legitimate expectation of privacy protected...Townsend, to place D.A.V. under arrest and take him to the first floor security office while she pursued appellant who had darted toward an escalator and up to the seventh floor. Appellant then ran to the...sub-basement where he was placed under arrest by other officers. Officer Potts further testified that the briefcase in question was opened in the security office and contained a "Woodies" shirt and...

...Testing and the Privacy Rights of Subject Employees: Toward a General Rule of Legality Under the Fourth Amendment, 48 U.Pitt.L.Rev. 201, 202 (1986...the union, the court also found that the plan violated the privilege against self-incrimination, penumbral constitutional rights of privacy, and, because of its unreliability, the due process clause...Winston v. Lee, "`the overriding function of the Fourth Amendment is to protect personal privacy and dignity against unwarranted intrusion...

...privacy” inquiry under Katz. The outcome would be no different if the Court had applied Katz, the concurrence argued, because “society's expectation has been that law enforcement agents and...lessened privacy interests, and the progeny of Terry v. Ohio. We consider each category in turn and find that none apply to the instant matter..., 148 L.Ed.2d 333 (2000), courts should “balance the governmental and privacy interests to assess the practicality of the warrant and probable-cause...

...warrantless search . . . will depend upon the specific enforcement needs and privacy guarantees of each statute." Marshall v. Barlow's, Inc., 436 U.S. 307, 321, .... At 2:30 a.m. on July 18, 1977, Juneau Police Officers Kalwara and Coyle were making routine security checks of commercial establishments in downtown Juneau. Their customary procedure was to..., 593 P.2d 640, 642 (Alaska 1979), and, despite the state's contentions to the contrary, we are not persuaded that a security check of business premises falls within any of the previously...

...reasonableness upon the exercise of discretion by government officials, including law enforcement officials, in order to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions...limitations imposed by the Constitution. Consistent with this pronouncement, the Supreme Court in Montoya considered the governmental and privacy interest implicated by a non-routine search of an alimentary canal smuggler ...conducted in this case carries a grave potential for oppressive and arbitrary interference with privacy and personal security of individuals that the Fourth Amendment was intended to prevent. The...

.... "The basic purpose of this Amendment . . . is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invas...to a store security guard who placed the trash cans under surveillance. Around 4:00 p.m. he saw "a white Mercury containing two black men stop near the trash cans momentarily and then speed away." He...necessarily brought into frequent contact with automobiles." Id. at 367-68. Further, "[o]ne has a lesser expectation of privacy in a motor vehicle because its function is transportation and it seldom...

.... And certainly I find the ... Fourth Amendment fully applies to ... [appellant's] apartment. It's his residence and the Fourth Amendment gives him rights of privacy in there and rights to be...grave concern, not only to the individual but to a society which chooses to dwell in reasonable security and freedom from surveillance...harm, assist those who cannot care for themselves, resolve conflict, create and maintain a feeling of security in the community, and provide other services on an emergency basis...

...public interest and the individual's right to personal security free from arbitrary interference by law officers. Terry v. Ohio, supra, at 20-21...protected both the interests of the public in law enforcement and of border residents in personal privacy. See id. at 883, 95 S.Ct. at 2581...police for license and * * * registration checks" constitutes an unconstitutional invasion of privacy. Id. at 87. That Prouse would not disturb the result reached in Kabayama is...

...in countless decisions of this Court, is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials.' At 528.... Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 655 (1961). 'The security of one's privacy against arbitrary intrusion by the police — which is at the core of the Fourth Amendment — is...zones of privacy that the constitutional contours of the "plain view" seizure doctrine must be ascertained. In determining whether the doctrine is applicable to a particular visual discovery and seizure...

...concerns itself with the privacy of the individual which is "the very essence of constitutional liberty and security" ( Berger v. New York, supra...controlled substance without violating the right of the purchaser to privacy in choice of drugs and his doctor-patient relationship. The Court also emphasized the tight controls on security and use of the...that was of interest to the law enforcement authorities here and that a reasonable person who posted a piece of mail would have an expectation of privacy "(1) that the information contained in the...

...of individuals in privacy and security by requiring that all searches be reasonable, and, in the ordinary case, be performed pursuant to a...of a cognizable interest in security or privacy. Zurcher v. Stanford Daily, supra; Camara v. Municipal Court, supra. In rejecting the claim that more than probable cause and..."position and interests," avoiding "harassment," id. at 507-08, 98 S.Ct. 1942, the "privacy and security of individuals...

...seizures." The "basic purpose of this Amendment," our cases have recognized, "is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials...privacy rights were understood largely in terms of property rights." Cloud, Property Is Privacy: Locke and Brandeis in the Twenty-First Century, 55 Am. Crim. L. Rev. 37, 42 (2018). Those who ratified th...) (explaining that courts must assess the "desirability" of privacy expectations and ask whether courts "should" recognize them by "balanc[ing]" the "impact on the individual's sense of security...

...discovery and opening of the barber's case (a logical place to hide a small handgun), was a minor intrusion into the defendant's privacy necessary to insure that the police had control of the other...barber's case laying on the bed, to find the missing handgun. The handgun and shells used in the crime were, in fact, in the case. He well could have judged that the security of all depended on finding...weigh the need to invade that privacy in order to enforce the law. The right of privacy was deemed too precious to entrust to the discretion of those whose job is the detection of crime and the arrest...

...expectation of privacy in the carefully wrapped and sealed packages. While acknowledging the benefits of a bright line rule, Justice Powell reasoned that the plurality's rule in this case placed an unduly...privacy in the bales, as evidenced by the careful packaging and sealing of the bales and the placing of them inside the curtained camper...protects persons from "unreasonable searches and seizures" which invade the security of "their persons, houses, papers and effects." The Supreme Court has in turn declared that a search of a person or his...

...assures citizens the privacy and security of their homes unless determined otherwise by a judicial officer, applies with equal force in the case of entry to arrest a suspect as it does in the case of...guarded circumstances, assures citizens of the privacy and security of their own homes unless a judicial officer should determine otherwise — is applicable not only in cases of entry to search for and...dwell in reasonable security and freedom from surveillance. When the right of privacy must reasonably yield to the right of search is, as a rule, to be decided by a judicial officer, not by a policeman...

...arrest of Bleichfeld on the train and the search of his bags in the security office. 751 F.Supp. at 9. The court's Memorandum Opinion and Order...remained in the security office for fifteen to twenty minutes before leaving, and that the results of the phone call were not known when he departed. Tr. II at 50. If one assumes that the wait on the...searches of automobiles based upon probable cause. Because of the diminished expectation of privacy in automobiles and their mobility, the Court held in...

.... This intrusion, both in terms of invasion of privacy and inconvenience, is a good deal less than that involved in arrest, which entails detention for hours or days ...covered by the Fourth Amendment constitute such limited intrusions on the personal security of those detained and are justified by such substantial law enforcement interests that they...than probable cause, our focus must be on two criteria: 1) the degree to which the government has intruded on personal security; and 2) the existence of substantial "special law enforcement interests...

...enough to an arrest that the normal level of probable cause is necessary before the interests of privacy and personal security must give way...the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions. . . ."' 440 U.S. at 653-654..., we think that the permissible scope of a "safety search" should be determined by balancing the competing interests of the officer's security and the suspect's privacy rights. As Justice White stated in...

...officials . . . `"to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions."'" ( Delaware v. Prouse (1979) 440 U.S. 648...Amendment is to protect liberty and privacy from arbitrary and oppressive interference by government officials." ( United States v. Ortiz (1975...privacy simply because the automobile and its use are subject to government regulation" ( Prouse, supra, 440 U.S. at p. 662) is...

...expectation of privacy. That reduced expectation of privacy is limited generally to security concerns and prison administration, see Jones v...some privacy right among prisoners, even if that right may be limited to goals related to prison administration and security. As such, absent more specific justification, invasion of an inmate's body cannot be supported by ...software; (4) ensure the security and confidentiality of all records in the statewide DNA data base system; and...

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