CITATION CODES

DOCKET NO.

No. 02-1624.

JUDGES

John Paul Stevens

William Hubbs Rehnquist

Sandra Day O'Connor

Clarence Thomas

ATTORNEY(S)

Terence J. Cassidy argued the cause for petitioners. With him on the briefs was Michael W. Pott. Solicitor General Olson argued the cause for the United States as respondent under this Court's Rule 12.6 in support of petitioners. With him on the briefs were Assistant Attorney General Keisler, Deputy Solicitor General Clement, Deputy Assistant Attorney General Katsas, Patricia A. Millett, Robert M. Loeb, Lowell V. Sturgill, and Sushma Soni. Michael A. Newdow, pro se, argued the cause and filed a brief as respondent. Briefs of amici curiae urging reversal were filed for the State of Texas et al. by Greg Abbott, Attorney General of Texas, R. Ted Cruz, Solicitor General, Barry R. McBee, First Assistant Attorney General, Edward D. Burbach and Don R. Willett, Deputy Attorneys General, Peter C. Harvey, Acting Attorney General of New Jersey, and Gerald J. Pappert, Acting Attorney General of Pennsylvania, and by the Attorneys General for their respective States as follows: William H. Pryor, Jr., of Alabama, Gregg D. Renkes of Alaska, Terry Goddard of Arizona, Mike Beebe of Arkansas, Bill Lockyer of California, Ken Salazar of Colorado, Richard Blumenthal of Connecticut, M. Jane Brady of Delaware, Charles J. Crist, Jr., of Florida, Thurbert E. Baker of Georgia, Mark J. Bennett of Hawaii, Lawrence G. Wasden of Idaho, Lisa Madigan of Illinois, Steve Carter of Indiana, Thomas J. Miller of Iowa, Phill Kline of Kansas, A. B. "Ben" Chandler of Kentucky, Richard P. Ieyoub of Louisiana, G. Steven Rowe of Maine, J. Joseph Curran, Jr., of Maryland, Thomas F. Reilly of Massachusetts, Michael A. Cox of Michigan, Mike Hatch of Minnesota, Mike Moore of Mississippi, Jeremiah W. "Jay" Nixon of Missouri, Mike McGrath of Montana, Jon Bruning of Nebraska, Brian Sandoval of Nevada, Peter W. Heed of New Hampshire, Patricia A. Madrid of New Mexico, Eliot Spitzer of New York, Roy Cooper of North Carolina, Wayne Stenehjem of North Dakota, Jim Petro of Ohio, W. A. Drew Edmondson of Oklahoma, Hardy Myers of Oregon, Patrick C. Lynch of Rhode Island, Henry McMaster of South Carolina, Lawrence E. Long of South Dakota, Paul G. Summers of Tennessee, Mark L. Shurtleff of Utah, William H. Sorrell of Vermont, Jerry W. Kilgore of Virginia, Christine O. Gregoire of Washington, Darrell V. McGraw, Jr., of West Virginia, Peg Lautenschlager of Wisconsin, and Patrick J. Crank of Wyoming; for the American Civil Rights Union by John C. Armor and Peter Ferrara; for the American Jewish Congress by Marc D. Stern and Norman Redlich; for the American Legion by Eric L. Hirschhorn and Philip B. Onderdonk, Jr.; for the Bipartisan Legal Advisory Group of the United States House of Representatives by Geraldine R. Gennet, Kerry W. Kircher, and Michael L. Stern; for the Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights et al. by Edward L. White III and Charles S. LiMandri; for the Center for Individual Freedom by Renee L. Giachino; for the Christian Legal Society et al. by Gregory S. Baylor, Kimberlee Wood Colby, and Stuart J. Lark; for Citizens United Foundation by William J. Olson and John S. Miles; for the Claremont Institute Center for Constitutional Jurisprudence by John C. Eastman, Edwin Meese III, and Phillip J. Griego; for Focus on the Family et al. by Benjamin W. Bull, Jordan W. Lorence, Kevin H. Theriot, Robert H. Tyler, and Patrick A. Trueman; for Grassfire.net by John G. Stepanovich; for the Institute in Basic Life Principles et al. by Bernard P. Reese, Jr.; for the Knights of Columbus by Kevin J. Hasson, Anthony R. Picarello, Jr., Roman P. Storzer, Carl A. Anderson, Paul R. Devin, and Robert A. Destro; for Liberty Counsel et al. by Mathew D. Staver and Rena M. Lindevaldsen; for the National Education Association by Robert H. Chanin and Jeremiah A. Collins; for the National Jewish Commission on Law and Public Affairs by Nathan Lewin, Alyza D. Lewin, Dennis Rapps, David Zwiebel, and Richard B. Stone; for the National Lawyers Association Foundation by Dennis Owens and Robert C. Cannada; for the National School Boards Association by Lisa A. Brown, Erin Glenn Busby, Julie Underwood, and Naomi Gittins; for the Pacific Justice Institute by Peter D. Lepiscopo; for the Pacific Research Institute et al. by Sharon L. Browne and Russell C. Brooks; for the Rutherford Institute by John W. Whitehead and Steven H. Aden; for the United States Senate by Patricia Mack Bryan, Morgan J. Frankel, Grant R. Vinik, and Thomas E. Caballero; for Wallbuilders, Inc., by Barry C. Hodge; for Senator George Allen et al. by Jay Alan Sekulow, Stuart J. Roth, Colby M. May, James M. Henderson, Walter M. Weber, Joel H. Thornton, John P. Tuskey, and Laura B. Hernandez; for Sandra L. Banning by Kenneth W. Starr, Robert R. Gasaway, Ashley C. Parrish, Stephen W. Parrish, and Paul E. Sullivan; for Senator John Cornyn et al. by Mr. Cornyn, pro se; for Idaho Governor Dirk Kempthorne et al. by L. Michael Bogert and David F. Hensley; and for Congressman Ron Paul et al. by Richard D. Ackerman and Gary G. Kreep. Briefs of amici curiae urging affirmance were filed for American Atheists by Paul Sanford; for the American Humanist Association et al. by Elizabeth L. Hileman; for Americans United for Separation of Church and State et al. by David H. Remes, Ayesha Khan, and Steven R. Shapiro; for the Anti-Defamation League by Martin E. Karlinsky, Martin S. Lederman, Steven M. Freeman, Michael Lieberman, Frederick M. Lawrence, Howard W. Goldstein, and Erwin Chemerinsky; for Associated Pantheist Groups by Michael C. Worsham and Dov M. Szego; for Atheists for Human Rights by Jerold M. Gorski; for Buddhist Temples et al. by Kenneth R. Pierce; for the Church of Freethought by Keith Alan; for the Council for Secular Humanism by Edward Tabash; for the Freedom From Religion Foundation, Inc., by Robert Reitano Tiernan; for Historians and Law Scholars by Steven K. Green and Steven G. Gey; for Religious Scholars and Theologians by Peter Irons; for Rob Sherman Advocacy by Richard D. Grossman; for Seattle Atheists et al. by Gary D. Borek; for United Fathers of America et al. by Mr. Gorski; for Rev. Dr. Betty Jane Bailey et al. by Douglas Laycock; for Christopher L. Eisgruber et al. by Lawrence G. Sager; and for Barbara A. McGraw by Ms. McGraw, pro se. Briefs of amici curiae were filed for Atheists and other Freethinkers by Dean Robert Johansson; for the Atheist Law Center by Pamela L. Sumners and Larry Darby; for the Common Good Foundation et al. by Keith A. Fournier and John G. Stepanovich; for Thurston Greene by Mr. Greene, pro se; for Joseph R. Grodin by Neal Katyal and Richard A. Epstein; and for Mister Thorne by Ronald K. Losch.

N
United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. , 28 Feb 2003
U
United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. , 04 Dec 2002
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 27 Jun 2002
U
United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. , 26 Jun 2002
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 11 Jun 2001
U
United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit. , 27 Mar 2001
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 19 Jun 2000
U
United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. , 23 Aug 1996
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 29 Jun 1995
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 29 Jun 1995
U
United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. , 25 Jul 1994
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 27 Jun 1994
U
United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit. , 02 Feb 1994
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 07 Jun 1993
U
United States Court of Appeals, Seventh Circuit. , 20 Nov 1992
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 24 Jun 1992
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 15 Jun 1992
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 12 Jun 1992
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 17 Apr 1990
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 03 Jul 1989
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 21 Jun 1989
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 30 May 1989
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 29 Jun 1988
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 19 Jun 1985
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 04 Jun 1985
U
United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit. , 24 Apr 1985
U
United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. , 22 Feb 1985
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 03 Jul 1984
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 26 Jun 1984
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 25 Apr 1984
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 05 Mar 1984
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 05 Jul 1983
U
Court of Appeal of California, First District, Division Two. , 25 Apr 1983
U
United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit. , 04 Feb 1983
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 13 Dec 1982
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 21 Apr 1982
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 08 Dec 1981
U
United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit. , 30 Oct 1980
U
Court of Appeal of California, Fourth District, Division Two. , 18 Mar 1980
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 11 Jun 1979
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 26 Jun 1978
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 01 Jul 1976
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 10 Jun 1976
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 24 Mar 1976
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 25 Jun 1975
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 15 May 1972
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 28 Jun 1971
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 23 Feb 1971
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 04 May 1970
U
United States District Court, E.D. California. , 28 Feb 1968
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 17 Jun 1963
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 25 Jun 1962
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 19 Jun 1961
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 29 May 1961
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 28 Apr 1952
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 03 Mar 1952
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 09 Jun 1947
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 10 Feb 1947
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 04 Dec 1944
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 14 Jun 1943
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 20 May 1940
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 17 Feb 1936
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 19 May 1890
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF WEST VIRGINIA , 09 Nov 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF WEST VIRGINIA , 09 Nov 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF ARIZONA , 31 Oct 2018
U
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FIFTH CIRCUIT , 24 Oct 2018
U
UNITED STATES BANKRUPTCY COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , 18 Oct 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , 11 Oct 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF MASSACHUSETTS , 28 Sep 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLORADO , 25 Sep 2018
U
UNITED STATES BANKRUPTCY COURT NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS EASTERN DIVISION , 14 Sep 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO WESTERN DIVISION , 13 Sep 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA , 05 Sep 2018
U
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT , 05 Sep 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS SAN ANTONIO DIVISION , 04 Sep 2018
U
DISTRICT COURT OF THE VIRGIN ISLANDS DIVISION OF ST. CROIX , 08 Aug 2018
U
COURT OF APPEALS OF THE STATE OF MISSISSIPPI , 26 Jul 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF CONNECTICUT , 05 Jul 2018
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 26 Jun 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF NEW JERSEY , 13 Jun 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS DALLAS DIVISION , 13 Jun 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MISSOURI EASTERN DIVISION , 11 Jun 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF INDIANA EVANSVILLE DIVISION , 05 Jun 2018
U
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT , 31 May 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF WISCONSIN , 29 May 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS , 22 May 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT CENTRAL DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA , 16 May 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA , 08 May 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , 26 Apr 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT WESTERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , 24 Apr 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT MIDDLE DISTRICT OF FLORIDA TAMPA DIVISION , 31 Mar 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS EASTERN DIVISION , 30 Mar 2018
U
United States Bankruptcy Court, C.D. Illinois. , 29 Mar 2018
U
United States District Court, D. Maryland. , 28 Mar 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF MARYLAND , 28 Mar 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA , 15 Mar 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS HOUSTON DIVISION , 05 Mar 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS HOUSTON DIVISION , 05 Mar 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF MARYLAND , 27 Feb 2018
U
COURT OF APPEALS OF VIRGINIA , 13 Feb 2018
U
Court of Appeals of Virginia, Newport News. , 13 Feb 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS DALLAS DIVISION , 07 Feb 2018
U
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FIFTH CIRCUIT , 06 Feb 2018
U
United States Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit. , 06 Feb 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , 02 Feb 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF NEW JERSEY , 25 Jan 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF CONNECTICUT , 22 Jan 2018
U
United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. , 12 Jan 2018
U
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT , 12 Jan 2018
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF HAWAII , 18 Dec 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT NORTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS DALLAS DIVISION , 14 Dec 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLORADO , 27 Nov 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , 21 Nov 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF MARYLAND , 09 Nov 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF MARYLAND , 06 Nov 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , 31 Oct 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA , 25 Oct 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF MARYLAND , 25 Oct 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT MIDDLE DISTRICT OF FLORIDA ORLANDO DIVISION , 30 Sep 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA , 29 Sep 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF MINNESOTA , 13 Sep 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , 25 Aug 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ALABAMA SOUTHERN DIVISION , 24 Aug 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT NORTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO , 16 Aug 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE EASTERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA , 09 Aug 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF ALABAMA NORTHERN DIVISION , 03 Aug 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS DALLAS DIVISION , 31 Jul 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF MARYLAND , 28 Jul 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF TENNESSEE , 25 Jul 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF MARYLAND , 17 Jul 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA , 29 Jun 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF NEVADA , 27 Jun 2017
U
U.S. Supreme Court , 26 Jun 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT NORTHERN DISTRICT OF INDIANA SOUTH BEND DIVISION , 14 Jun 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF MARYLAND , 05 Jun 2017
U
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FOURTH CIRCUIT , 25 May 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF ILLINOIS EASTERN DIVISION , 23 May 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS DALLAS DIVISION , 11 May 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF OREGON , 10 May 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , 09 May 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA , 28 Apr 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT WESTERN DISTRICT OF WASHINGTON AT SEATTLE , 14 Apr 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , 06 Mar 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT DISTRICT OF NEVADA , 03 Mar 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO EASTERN DIVISION , 27 Feb 2017
U
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT , 15 Feb 2017
U
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE TENTH CIRCUIT , 06 Feb 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT WESTERN DISTRICT OF LOUISIANA MONROE DIVISION , 31 Jan 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , 24 Jan 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE MIDDLE DISTRICT OF TENNESSEE NASHVILLE DIVISION , 18 Jan 2017
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MISSOURI EASTERN DIVISION , 09 Jan 2017
U
United States District Court, N.D. Texas, Wichita Falls Division. , 31 Dec 2016
U
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT , 21 Dec 2016
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF OHIO WESTERN DIVISION , 09 Dec 2016
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF WEST VIRGINIA Wheeling , 17 Oct 2016
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT NORTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , 12 Oct 2016
U
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SIXTH CIRCUIT , 03 Oct 2016
U
United States Court of Appeals, Sixth Circuit. , 03 Oct 2016
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK , 20 Sep 2016
U
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FOURTH CIRCUIT , 19 Sep 2016
U
UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF PUERTO RICO , 13 Sep 2016
U
UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE SECOND CIRCUIT , 12 Sep 2016
UNIFIED SCHOOL DIST. v. NEWDOW
U.S. Supreme Court (14 Jun, 2004)