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..."). Employing this standard, Lambert argues that she has a reasonable expectation of privacy in her Social Security number, and that the district court therefore erred in failing to balance that interest...interest in one's Social Security number. See, e.g., Privacy Act of 1974, 5 U.S.C. § 552a (providing restrictions on the disclosure of Social Security...request, that "an individual's informational privacy interest in his or her SSN [Social Security number] is substantial"); In re Crawford...

...case, the prison authorities, we have no knowledge of the physical, structural, or security conditions in prison that contribute to and may generate a diminished expectation of privacy or..., without much more information about prison security concerns, that Doe has a constitutional right to privacy in his HIV-positive status, any more than he has a constitutional right of privacy in his cell...society in the security of its penal institutions and the interest of the prisoner in privacy within his cell. The latter interest, of course, is already limited by the exigencies of the...

.... Plaintiffs, who were student athletes attending Stanford University (Stanford) at the time of trial, sued the NCAA, contending its drug testing program violated their ri...by article I, section 1 of the California Constitution. Stanford intervened in the suit and adopted plaintiffs' position. Finding the NCAA's program to be an invasion of plaintiffs' right to privacy..., reveal their bodily and medical conditions to coaches and trainers, and often dress and undress in same-sex locker rooms. In so doing, they normally and reasonably forgo a measure of their privacy in...

...alia, that appellant had no legitimate expectation of privacy in the residence and, therefore, no standing to assert either of his constitutional claims. The trial court denied the motion to...suppress on the ground that appellant's subjective expectation of privacy was not one that society was prepared to recognize as reasonable. Villarreal...undoubtedly constitutes a "search" within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment and Article I, § 9, with respect to those persons who have a legitimate expectation of privacy in the residence. See...

...preserving security and equal employment opportunities justified any privacy invasion caused by cross-sex monitoring. The court reasoned that differences in the dangerousness of the male and female prisoners...of non-security personnel; and (2) another requiring the installation of privacy partitions in front of shower doors and between toilets. The district court refused to exercise jurisdiction over the...while intoxicated. A few female guards, but mostly male, were assigned to monitor the male housing areas; this was necessary to staff all housing areas adequately, for security...

...a person has a constitutionally protected reasonable expectation of privacy, which involves the two inquiries of whether the individual manifested a subjective expectation of privacy in the object of...personal and societal values protected by the Fourth Amendment. Pp. 211-212. (b) On the record here, respondent's expectation of privacy from all...manifested a reasonable expectation of privacy by any standard." 161 Cal.App.3d, at 1089, 208...

...we stated in State v. Downey, "[t]he essence of the prohibition against unreasonable searches and seizures under the Fourth Amendment is to `safeguard the privacy and security of individuals...a citizen impermissibly intrudes upon the privacy or personal security of the citizen," State v. Daniel, 12 S.W.3d 420, 424 (Tenn. 2000...the search, and that therefore, he lacked any legitimate expectation of privacy in the room. Consequently, the trial court held that the appellant's Fourth Amendment rights were not violated by the...

...fields that might implicate an individual's privacy. An individual who enters a place defined to be "public" for Fourth Amendment analysis does not lose all claims to privacy or personal security. Cf...location of the marihuana patches evinced a reasonable expectation of privacy, and that therefore the open fields doctrine did not apply. The Maine Supreme Judicial Court affirmed...reasonable expectation of privacy." Id., at 360. The Amendment does not protect the merely subjective expectation of privacy, but only those "expectation[s] that society is prepared to...

...lives of our people. Security of the home must be guarded by the law in a world where privacy is diminished by enhanced surveillance and sophisticated communication systems. As is well established...had "standing" to claim Fourth Amendment protection because they had a legitimate expectation of privacy in the invaded place, and that the officer's observation constituted an unreasonable search.... Held: Any search that may have occurred did not violate respondents' Fourth Amendment rights. The state courts' analysis of respondents' expectation of privacy under the...

..., 488 (9th Cir. 1991) (finding no reasonable expectation of privacy in either office or locked credenza when engineer knew of security regimen, including daily office searches) and American Postal...Center's open and undifferentiated work area. PRTC did not provide the work station for the appellants' exclusive use, and its physical layout belies any expectation of privacy. Security operators do not...communication between the company's various operating units and the senior executive on duty, but it does not have primary corporate responsibility for security and it does not house communication...

...of his social security number as a condition to licensure violated § 7(a)(1) of the Privacy Act. Plaintiff sought both damages and prospective injunctive relief, i.e., the issuance of his license. The...privilege provided by law because of such individual's refusal to disclose his social security account number," except as otherwise provided under the Privacy Act.... Plaintiff alleged that Defendants' refusal to renew his license to practice acupuncture unless he first disclosed his social security number, as required by California law, violated both his right to...

...decision of the United States District Court for the Western District of New York (Telesca, J.)granting Pioneer's Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss Burch's Privacy Act claim and dismissing Burch's motion...accordance with Pioneer's contracts with these agencies, Pioneer was required to have employees who were to work on these accounts, including Burch, complete security clearance packages. In October 2006..., Burch brought a suit claiming, inter alia, that Pioneer was photocopying his security clearance packages, keeping a permanent record of them in his personnel file, and otherwise mishandling...

...suspect's "protected area." Before Katz, this Court may have focused too much on the "security" aspect of the right of privacy, while giving short shrift to its "secrecy" aspect. In recognizing...Amendment. Pp. 769-773. (a) If an inspection by police does not intrude upon a legitimate expectation of privacy, there is no "search" subject to the Warrant Clause.... No protected privacy interest remains in contraband in a container once government officers lawfully (as here) have opened that container and identified its contents as illegal. The simple act of...

...information compiled for law enforcement purposes "to the extent that the production of such [materials] . . . could reasonably be expected to constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy." The...legitimate privacy interest in his rap sheet is outweighed by the public interest in disclosure because the original information appears on the public record. Held: Disclosure of...the contents of an FBI rap sheet to a third party "could reasonably be expected to constitute an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy...

..., claiming that such disclosures violated the Privacy Act of 1974. The Government stipulated to an order prohibiting future publication of Social Security numbers on multicaptioned hearing notices, and...concedes that following this practice led to disclosing Doe's Social Security number beyond the limits set by the Privacy Act. See U.S.C. § 552a(b). Doe joined with six other...Privacy Act.'" Pet. for Cert. 6a. Early on, the United States stipulated to an order prohibiting future publication of applicants' Social Security numbers on multicaptioned hearing notices, and the parties...

...to a verdict against such defendant or both of them as invaded her right of privacy, and I charge you that as a matter of law the plaintiff's right of privacy and to personal security includes the...to the jury: "* * * I charge you that as a matter of law the plaintiff's right of privacy and to personal security includes the right to be let alone...natural state, and which he did not surrender by becoming a member of organized society. The fundamental rights of personal security and personal liberty include right of privacy, which is merely the...

...privacy in ground security, as Dow argues, then taking no measure for aerial security should say something about its actual privacy expectation in being free from aerial observation...observation from the air. Petitioner maintains elaborate security around the perimeter of the complex, barring ground-level public views of the area. When petitioner denied a request by the...entitled to protection as a place where the occupants have a reasonable and legitimate expectation of privacy that society is prepared to accept. See California v. Ciraolo, ante, p...

...interest in preserving their lives, personal security, and bodily integrity). This latter principle has been coined an informational right to privacy. Unlike many...pursuant to Rule 12(b)(6) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, finding that he was entitled to qualified immunity on both the retaliation claim and the privacy claim as asserted by the Blochs. For...the reasons set forth below, we REVERSE the dismissal of the Blochs' retaliation claim, AFFIRM the dismissal of their privacy claim, and REMAND the case for further proceedings consistent with this...

...which popular expectations are in flux and may ultimately produce significant changes in popular attitudes. New technology may provide increased convenience or security at the expense of privacy, and...] person traveling in an automobile on public thoroughfares has no reasonable expectation of privacy in his movements from one place to another.’ ” Ibid. (quoting...concurrence in that case, which said that a violation occurs when government officers violate a person's “reasonable expectation of privacy,” id., at 360...

...guest is alone sufficient to show that he had an expectation of privacy in the home that society is prepared to recognize as reasonable. See...not legally determinative. All citizens share the expectation that hosts will more likely than not respect their guests' privacy interests even if the guests have no legal interest in the premises and...Amendment depends . . . upon whether the person who claims the protection of the Amendment has a legitimate expectation of privacy in the invaded place...

..." petitioner. Held: 1. The Government's eavesdropping activities violated the privacy upon which petitioner justifiably relied while using the telephone booth and thus...that evidence obtained by attaching an electronic listening recording device to the top of such a booth is obtained in violation of the right to privacy of the user of the booth...constitutional "right to privacy." That Amendment protects individual privacy against certain kinds of governmental intrusion, but its protections go further, and often have nothing to do with privacy at all...

...expectation of privacy" that has been invaded by government action. This inquiry normally embraces two questions: first, whether the individual has exhibited an actual (subjective) expectation of...privacy; and second, whether his expectation is one that society is prepared to recognize as "reasonable." Katz v. United States, 389 U.S.... 347. Pp. 739-741. (b) Petitioner in all probability entertained no actual expectation of privacy in the phone numbers he dialed, and even if he did, his...

...privacy, into ‘the security a man relies upon when he places himself or his property within a constitutionally protected area.’ ” United States...City Defendant violated a privacy right that the Constitution protects, and no evidence supports her allegations; accordingly, the Court will grant the MTD & MSJ as to that claim. The Plaintiffs...‘witnessed you in the Security Building at approx. 12:30 p.m. At 3:00 p.m., ‘(y)ou were not at your assigned work area.’ ” Complaint ¶ 27, at 6 (source of quotation unidentified...

...interest legitimately protected by the Fourth Amendment’ is implicated by governmental investigative activities unless there is an intrusion into a zone of privacy, into ‘the security a man relies upon...we all have some general privacy interest in our home,” but “whether it was beyond debate in 2005 that the officers' entry and search lacked legal justification..., courts must “assur[e] preservation of that degree of privacy against government that existed when the Fourth Amendment was adopted.” United States v. Jones, ––– U.S...

...the Fourth Amendment, therefore, we must be certain that none of the techniques so excluded threatens the areas of personal security and privacy that the Amendment is intended to protect...accidental or deliberate or were reasonable or unreasonable, they, because of their private character, did not violate the Fourth Amendment. The additional invasions of respondents' privacy by the DEA...and his visual inspection of their contents enabled him to learn nothing that had not previously been learned during the private search. It infringed no legitimate expectation of privacy and hence was...

...implicated by governmental investigative activities unless there is an intrusion into a zone of privacy, into 'the security a man relies upon when he places himself or his property within a constitutionally...there is no Fourth Amendment privacy right in subscriber information -- concluded that no privacy interest was implicated by disclosure of the defendant's social security number under an invalid...registration," which "anyone in the public could get"). 12. The TLO also notes that Streett is a deceased individual's social security number, and provides the social...

...Amendment, as recognized in countless decisions of this Court, is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials...." 387 U.S., at 528. Because the individual's interest in privacy and personal security "suffers whether the government's motivation is to investigate violations of..., must conform their conduct to the Fourth Amendment's protections of personal privacy and personal security. As JUSTICE STEVENS points out...

..., the Tenth Circuit explained that the relevant question "wasn't whether we all have some general privacy interest in our home," but "whether it was beyond debate in 2005 that the officers...a Fourth Amendment violation has occurred, courts must "assur[e] preservation of that degree of privacy against government that existed when the Fourth Amendment was adopted." United States v...expectation of privacy," id., at 464 . . . . 132 S. Ct. at 949-50. The United States had contended that, under the "Harlan...

..., scheduling a pre-determination hearing for May 9, 2011. Included in the allegations was the contention that on “April 11, 2011 Clarence Decker ‘witnessed you in the Security...to privacy. The Board members denounced Tapia's counsel for bringing the charges before the Personnel Board and the Board unanimously refused to consider the issue. Complaint ¶ 51, at 11...obligations and are liable for damages to be determined at trial.” Complaint ¶ 64, at 13. Under “Count 3 Violation of Right to Privacy,” the Plaintiffs contend that Ms. “Forney used a...

...protected by the Fourth Amendment' is implicated by governmental investigative activities unless there is an intrusion into a zone of privacy, into 'the security a man relies upon when he places himself..., grant the MTD & MSJ as to that claim. Plaintiff Jessica Tapia has not stated a claim that any City Defendant violated a privacy right that the Constitution protects, and no evidence supports her..."April 11, 2011 Clarence Decker 'witnessed you in the Security Building at approx. 12:30 p.m. At 3:00 p.m., '(y)ou were not at your assigned work area.'" On April 21, 2011, another Notice...

...351, 88 S.Ct. 507, a principle that eventually became embodied in what Justice Harlan termed an individual's “reasonable expectation of privacy” (the...privacy theory), id. at 360–61, 88 S.Ct. 507 (Harlan, J., concurring). In subsequent years, the privacy theory became the driving force...constituted a search before holding that the DEA agents' conduct was constitutional since they acted based on reasonable suspicion. Id. at 256–59 (holding that defendant had “reduced” privacy...

...legitimately protected by the Fourth Amendment’ is implicated by governmental investigative activities unless there is an intrusion into a zone of privacy, into ‘the security a man relies upon when he....” U.S. Const. amend. IV. In determining whether a Fourth Amendment violation has occurred, courts must “assur[e] preservation of that degree of privacy against government that existed when the Fourth...occurs when government officers violate a person's “reasonable expectation of privacy,” id., at 360, 88 S.Ct. 507.... 132 S.Ct...

...unless there is an intrusion into a zone of privacy, into 'the security a man relies upon when he places himself or his property within a constitutionally protected area.'" United States v. Miller...must "assur[e] preservation of that degree of privacy against government that existed when the Fourth Amendment was adopted." United States v. Jones, 132 S. Ct. 945, 950 (2012...], which said that a violation occurs when government officers violate a person's "reasonable expectation of privacy," id., at 464 . . . . 132 S. Ct. at 949...

.... 1782 (1949) (Frankfurter, J.) ("The security of one's privacy against arbitrary intrusion by the police — which is at the core of the Fourth Amendment — is basic to a free society."); Thomas Y...person has a subjective expectation of privacy, and (2) society is willing to recognize the expectation of privacy as objectively reasonable...traveling in an automobile on public thoroughfares has no reasonable expectation of privacy in his movements from one place to another." Id. at 281...

...governmental investigative activities unless there is an intrusion into a zone of privacy, into ‘the security a man relies upon when he places himself or his property within a constitutionally protected..., 181 L.Ed.2d 911 (2012). The government's scan of credit and debit cards' magnetic strips is also not a Fourth Amendment search under the reasonable-expectation-of-privacy...cards are used as intended, the scan does not implicate a legitimate privacy interest. Regardless whether the scan violated the Fourth Amendment, however, the evidence that the Secret Service found...

...home is also a grave concern, not only to the individual but to a society which chooses to dwell in reasonable security and freedom from surveillance. When the right of privacy must reasonably yield.... United States v. Watson, 423 U.S. 411, do not apply to warrantless invasions of the privacy of the home. The common-law rule on warrantless home arrests was not as clea...with the Fourth Amendment and why the reasons for upholding warrantless arrests in a public place do not apply to warrantless invasions of the privacy of the home...

...system to safeguard their security, and are thereafter destroyed. Public disclosure of the patient's identity is prohibited, and access to the files is confined to a limited number of health department...Schedule II patient-identification requirements. Holding that "the doctor-patient relationship is one of the zones of privacy accorded constitutional protection" and that the Act's patient-identification.... (b) There is no support in the record or in the experience of the two States that the New York program emulates for assuming that the statute's security provisions will be improperly...

...text — a security that has been traditionally deemed both objectively and subjectively reasonable. The government, for its part, denies that the imager intrudes upon domestic privacy at all. It...objectively reasonable). If the refuge of the home fails to ward off unimagined threats to the privacy of the people, the "security" explicitly mandated by the Constitution will wither as the government...); Goldman v. United States, 316 U.S. 129 (1942), Katz erected an analytic framework grounded in an individual's "reasonable expectations of privacy...

... The Fourth Amendment prohibits police activity which, if left unrestricted, would jeopardize individuals' sense of security or would too heavily burden those who wished to guard their privacy.... Fourth, respondent did little to protect the barn area from observation by those standing outside, the ranch's fences being of the type used to corral livestock, not to ensure privacy. Pp. 300...-303. 2. Respondent's contention that, because the barn is essential to his business, he possessed an expectation of privacy in it and its contents independent from...

...right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures," tolerates such an intrusion on privacy and personal security...in determining whether Riley suffered a serious loss of privacy and personal security through the police action? In...safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials." See also Marshall v. Barlow's, Inc...

...governmental investigative activities unless there is an intrusion into a zone of privacy, into 'the security a man relies upon when he places himself or his property within a constitutionally protected.... Supp. 2d at 1185. In Carroll v. Los Alamos National Security, LLC, 704 F. Supp. 2d 1200 (D.N.M. 2010)(Browning, J.), the Court...degree of privacy against government that existed when the Fourth Amendment was adopted." United States v. Jones, 132 S. Ct. 945, 950 (2012)(Scalia, J.)(alteration in original...

...purposes if its use involves a common law trespass, United States v. Jones, 565 U.S. 400 (2012), or invades a person's reasonable expectation of privacy, Katz v...privacy and thus his Fourth Amendment rights, the evidence obtained need not be suppressed because the good-faith exception to the exclusionary rule applies...because the officers lacked a warrant when they placed the GPS tracking device on the truck. Jean argued that the GPS tracking violated his possessory and privacy rights under the Fourth and...

...seizures." The "basic purpose of this Amendment," our cases have recognized, "is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials...) (explaining that courts must assess the "desirability" of privacy expectations and ask whether courts "should" recognize them by "balanc[ing]" the "impact on the individual's sense of security...robbery locations at the time those robberies occurred. Carpenter was convicted. The Sixth Circuit affirmed, holding that Carpenter lacked a reasonable expectation of privacy in the location information...

...popular expectations are in flux and may ultimately produce significant changes in popular attitudes. New technology may provide increased convenience or security at the expense of privacy, and many people...obtained while the vehicle was parked at Jones's residence, but held the remaining data admissible because Jones had no reasonable expectation of privacy when the vehicle was on public streets. Jones was...S.Ct. 507, 19 L.Ed.2d 576, which said that the Fourth Amendment protects a person's “reasonable expectation of privacy,” id., at 360...

...drafted a supporting affidavit in which he requested that the search include the following: the full names of all patients, dates of birth, social security...reasonable expectation of privacy in his records at the methadone clinic, and that Broderick lacked probable cause to conduct the search, thus violating the Fourth Amendment and...section 290dd-2 to indicate that Congress had in mind the creation of individual rights. For example, instead of providing patients with the right to maintain the privacy of their records, subsection (a...

..., 32 L.Ed.2d 752 (1972) (balancing governmental and privacy interests in concluding, categorically, that surveillance for domestic security purposes should be subject to "the...reasonable expectation of privacy, Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 88 S.Ct. 507..., 19 L.Ed.2d 576 (1967). Although we conclude Jean was subjected to a warrantless search that violated his reasonable expectation of privacy and thus his...

...implicated by governmental investigative activities unless there is an intrusion into a zone of privacy, into ‘the security a man relies upon when he places himself or his property within a...namic.... [I]llegal activity may not be advertised even in the privacy of one's personal computer—it could be well coded or otherwise disguised. Response...defendant's Fourth Amendment interests—whether the search violates the defendant's reasonable privacy expectation—as one of ‘standing...

...there is an intrusion into a zone of privacy, into ‘the security a man relies upon when he places himself or his property within a constitutionally protected area..., courts must “assur[e] preservation of that degree of privacy against government that existed when the Fourth Amendment was adopted.” United States v. Jones, ––– U.S...analysis of Justice Harlan's concurrence in [ Katz v. United States ], which said that a violation occurs when government officers violate a person's “reasonable expectation of privacy,” id...

...did not invade petitioners' privacy. Held: The seizure and removal of the trailer home implicated petitioners' Fourth Amendment rights. Pp. 61-72..., houses, papers, and effects" — cuts against the novel holding below, and this Court's cases unmistakably hold that the Amendment protects property even where privacy or liberty is not implicated. See...the lower court's construction of the Amendment. If the Amendment's boundaries were defined exclusively by rights of privacy, "plain view" seizures, rather than being scrupulously subjected to Fourth...

...a finding that privacy from this form of aerial observation was not objectively reasonable). If the refuge of the home fails to ward off unimagined threats to the privacy of the people, the "security...not an issue of the future, but it is an on-going, widespread challenge to the privacy rights of America's citizens. The widespread use of thermal imagers today — even by law enforcement departments...thermal imager to invade the privacy of innocent by-standers. The law enforcement "experts" reading the information from the thermal imager use the device against the homes of those who live nearby...

...apartment, knocked on the door, and, when it was opened by petitioner Colon, entered the apartment without requesting or receiving permission. The agents then conducted a limited security check of..., the agents discovered, inter alia, cocaine and records of narcotics transactions. These items were seized, together with those observed during the security check. The District Court granted...was under arrest and that a search warrant for the apartment was being obtained. Following this brief exchange in the living room, the agents conducted a limited security check...

...for public inspection, their claimed expectation of privacy in the inculpatory items they discarded was not objectively reasonable. It is common knowledge that plastic garbage bags left along a...privacy in his garbage should be deemed reasonable as a matter of federal constitutional law because the warrantless search and seizure of his garbage was impermissible as a matter of California law under...Fourth Amendment purposes does not depend upon privacy concepts embodied in the law of the particular State in which the search occurred; rather, it turns upon the understanding of society as a whole...

...1. Expectation of privacy .........................972 2. Property interest ..............................975 a. Abandonment .................................977..........................1000 V. CONCLUSION ..........................................1002 One of the hallmarks of our form of government is protection of personal privacy...American colonists went to war against England in part because of the abuses of the right to personal privacy, that right was deeply respected in the law of England from which so many of our cherished...

...; indeed, no search for the weapons could have taken place if the named items had been found or surrendered at the outset. The prohibition against general searches and warrants is based on privacy...affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized." The right to security in person and property protected by...the Fourth Amendment may be invaded in quite different ways by searches and seizures. A search compromises the individual interest in privacy; a seizure deprives the individual of dominion over his...

.... Was Jones's expectation of privacy reasonable? ........563 4. Visual surveillance distinguished .....................565 B. Was the Search Reasonable Nonetheless? ....................566 C. Was the...? For his part, Jones argues the use of the GPS device violated his "reasonable expectation of privacy," Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347...expectation of privacy was reasonable because that question was answered in United States v. Knotts, 460 U.S. 276...

...expectation of privacy cognizable under the right to privacy protection of the 4th Amendment of the US Constitution and article I, section 12 of the N Y Constitution...had no legitimate expectation of privacy" (id., at 1025). Because defendant had no right of privacy under Oliver, it was of no moment, in the Court's view, whether Collar had become an...— contrary to the Supreme Court's holding in Oliver — create an expectation of privacy cognizable under article I, § 12 of our State Constitution (see, People v Reynolds, supra, at 556, 557, 558...

...is also of grave concern, not only to the individual, but to a society which chooses to dwell in reasonable security and freedom from surveillance. When the right of privacy must reasonably yield to...not invade any legitimate expectation of privacy on respondent's part, and thus there was neither a "search" nor a "seizure" within the contemplation of the Fourth Amendment. The beeper surveillance...amounted principally to following an automobile on public streets and highways. A person traveling in an automobile on public thoroughfares has no reasonable expectation of privacy in his movements...

...people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated . . . ." The Amendment guarantees the privacy, dignity, and security of...and testing of urine under the regulations do not entail any intrusion into the body, they nevertheless constitute searches, since they intrude upon expectations of privacy as to medical information...regulations outweigh employees' privacy concerns. Pp. 618-633. (a) The Government's interest in regulating the conduct of railroad employees engaged in safety...

...only business discussions, he did not have an expectation of privacy that society would today deem to be justified. In addition, although the matter is not perfectly clear, the court finds that when...Title III was enacted it was intended that evolving, contemporary conceptions of reasonable expectations of privacy be applied in deciding whether an intercepted conversation constitutes an "oral.... In reaction to these disclosures, Congress and the legal profession began looking more closely at the FBI, particularly at its internal security operations. Select Committees...

..., and it is the fourth amendment we rely upon to protect the private exchange of our thoughts. Any government interception of conversation threatens people's sense of security in the privacy of their...that he manifested a subjective expectation of privacy that was allegedly invaded by government action and that that expectation was...legitimate? (2) Did the defendant have a legitimate expectation of privacy in the conversations or in the TDD printout tape that...

...observed: The security of one's privacy against arbitrary intrusion by the police — which is at the core of the Fourth Amendment — is basic to a free society.... The foremost question presented in this case arises out of the claim of Maro Saldana (Saldana) that the State unlawfully invaded his reasonable expectation of privacy with respect to...legitimate expectation of privacy through an unreasonable search and seizure. The guarantee is found in both Wyo. Const. art. 1, § 4, and U.S. Const. amend. IV...

...prohibited garbage from being put curbside for collection. See also LaFave, § 2.6(c), at 591-92 ("A justified expectation of privacy may..., . . . but rather whether there has been abandonment of a reasonable expectation of privacy as to the area searched or the property seized." (internal quotation omitted)). The...had a "reasonable expectation of privacy in the contents of his garbage cans." The warrantless searches of the garbage cans, Redmon argues, were therefore in violation of the Fourth Amendment. Redmon...

...subjective or objective expectation of privacy in the hotel room. As to Bushay's subjective expectation of privacy, the magistrate judge concluded that Bushay did not show that he had an unrestricted...Bushay had not established that he had a subjective expectation of privacy. Further, he concluded that Bushay had also failed to establish an objective expectation of privacy in the hotel room...expectation of privacy in the area searched. Further, he found that even if Bushay could establish standing on such a basis, he had failed to show that he had a possessory interest in the handgun sufficient to...

...privacy? Of course not. It means only that to protect ourselves from real danger, we need to adopt reasonable procedures that will increase our security against crime. .... After arriving at the FBI offices, Bowdich and Gutierrez took Crawford into an interview room, and closed the door "for privacy." They then told Crawford that he was not in custody and...-level upward sentencing enhancement assessed for physical restraint of a security guard during the robbery. We reach neither the Miranda nor the sentencing issue...

...exclusive enjoyment of a telephone free of interference from anybody, is a right of privacy. No government agent has a right to interpose an earpiece upon it any more than he has a right to raise the...secretly is an intrusion upon their right of privacy. Is it any the less so if they are in separate rooms connected by a telephone and some interloper "listens in" by means of "tapping" the wire? Such...has been to apply the "spirit" of them. In the Boyd case this Court declares that these principles "apply to all invasions on the part of the Government and its employees of the security of a...

...20, 1996, the only suspicious visitor to Scott Street was one of the off-duty police officers working security for Elkins — Charlie Smith ("Smith"). They also observed...officers to provide security at his businesses at the Scott and Neil addresses. Elkins did not mention 2896 Walnut Grove. Elkins asked the officers to watch the area...of the Memphis Police Department who was doing security work for Elkins. At that time, Hoing was accompanied by Bell and drug-detection dogs. Hoing testified that he had brought the dogs with him not...

...records. I The Fourth Amendment's “basic purpose ... is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by...Madden, Public Perceptions of Privacy and Security in the Post–Snowden Era 34, Pew Research Center (Nov. 12, 2014), http:// www. pewinternet...court order under § 2703(d) raises the bar from an ordinary subpoena to one with additional privacy protections built in. The government...

...privacy. (Cal. Const., art. I, § 1 ["[a]ll people" have an "inalienable" right to "privacy"].) That may well be. Unquestionably, the state constitutional guarantee of privacy extends to psychotherapy...records. ( Martinez, supra, 88 Cal.App.4th at pp. 474-475.) Moreover, defendant had a legally protected privacy interest and a reasonable...serious invasion of that privacy interest. (See Hill v. National Collegiate Athletic Assn. (1994) 7 Cal.4th 1, 35-37, 39-40...

...Anderson's constitutional right of privacy and the Illinois AIDS Confidentiality Act, 410 ILCS 305/1 et seq., by revealing that he was infected with the AIDS virus, and also that they had...HIV positive. Harlow v. Fitzgerald, 457 U.S. 800 (1982). A brief sketch of the history of the legal concept of privacy..., "The Right to Privacy," 4 Harv. L. Rev. 193 (1890). After a lag, the concept proposed by Warren and Brandeis fructified in a distinct, many-branched tort of invasion of the right of privacy, a...

...) (Harlan, J., dissenting), and the government intrusion at issue. Here, the sense of security or "what a person had an expectation of privacy in..."search" within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment. Balancing a number of factors regarding the Widgrens' reasonable expectation of privacy, we hold that the intrusions at issue are not Fourth...a search"). A search is defined in terms of a person's "reasonable expectation of privacy" and is analyzed under a two-part test first penned in...

..., 367 U.S. 643, 655 (1961)("Since the Fourth Amendment's right of privacy has been declared enforceable against the States through the Due Process...violates the defendant's reasonable privacy expectation -- as one of 'standing.'" Ysasi v. Brown, 3 F. Supp. 3d 1088, 1125 (D.N.M. 2014.... . . standing, or, in other words, a subjective expectation of privacy in the [place searched] that society is...

...the fourth amendment a defendant has a reasonable expectation of privacy in an uninhabitable structure which appellant was using to engage in the sale of narcotics. We conclude that appellant had no...constitutionally-protected expectations of privacy in the premises searched and as such the police entry did not infringe on fourth amendment rights. Alternatively, we find that exigent circumstances...legitimate expectation of privacy. Appellant sought to suppress the evidence seized following the officers' warrantless entry into the structure. Following a hearing, Judge Jane...

.... Affirming in part, reversing in part, and remanding the case, the Court of Appeals concluded that respondent had a reasonable expectation of privacy in his office, and that the search violated the Fourth.... Searches and seizures by government employers or supervisors of the private property of their employees are subject to Fourth Amendment restraints. An expectation of privacy in one's place of work is...privacy unreasonable when an intrusion is by a supervisor rather than a law enforcement official. Some government offices may be so open to...

...their conversations to frustrate any efforts to intercept them. Ring Aff. ¶ 3(o). The FBI believed that the inherent possibility of a late change in location was enhanced by the senstivity to security...it affects. The National Security Agency and the Fourth Amendment: Hearings on S.Res. 21 Vol. 5 Before the Senate Select Committee to Study Government...contemplated action against the individual's interests in protecting his own liberty and the privacy of his home. 451 U.S. at 212...

..., as recognized in countless decisions of this Court, is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials."). Such an open-ended policy...individual but to a society which chooses to dwell in reasonable security and freedom from surveillance. When the right of privacy must reasonably yield to the right of search is, as a rule, to be...to use sense-enhancing technology to intrude into the constitutionally-protected area of Rabb's house, which is reasonably considered a search violative of Rabb's expectation of privacy in his retreat...

...countless decisions of this Court, is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials."). Such an open-ended policy invites overbearing and...chooses to dwell in reasonable security and freedom from surveillance. When the right of privacy must reasonably yield to the right of search is, as a rule, to be decided by a judicial officer, not by a...technology to intrude into the constitutionally-protected area of Rabb's house, which is reasonably considered a search violative of Rabb's expectation of privacy in his retreat. Likewise, it is of no...

...unreliable statistics, demonstrated that as the rights of personal security and privacy have lessened, the problems of illegal drugs have also somewhat lessened in any related, or even unrelated...agree with that great patriot and libertarian, Benjamin Franklin, who eloquently prophesied that those who would willingly forfeit a little of their freedom for a little more security will end up with...temporary safety deserve neither liberty nor safety." Historical Review of Pennsylvania, 1759. I also endorse Adlai Stevenson's sage advice: "Carelessness about our security...

...privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by governmental officials.” Camara v. Mun. Court of City & Cnty. of S.F., 387...their physical location gathered over a period of time” is “very sensitive” or “somewhat sensitive.” Mary Madden, Public Perceptions of Privacy and Security in the Post–Snowden Era 34, Pew...warrant to a § 2703(d) order. Rather, requiring a court order under § 2703(d) raises the bar from an ordinary subpoena to one with additional privacy protections...

...Smith, “[t]he basic purpose of th[e Fourth] Amendment, as recognized in countless decisions of this Court, is to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions by...(“The Amendment guarantees the privacy, dignity, and security of persons against certain arbitrary and invasive acts by officers of the Government... arising from public revelations over the past six months that the federal government, through the National Security Agency (“NSA”), and with the participation of certain telecommunic...

..."reasonable" necessarily entails a balancing of interests. The two interests here are the interest of society in the security of its penal institutions and the interest of the prisoner in privacy within his...institutional security and internal order. We are satisfied that society would insist that the prisoner's expectation of privacy always yield to what...must be considered the paramount interest in institutional security. We believe that it is accepted by our society that "[l]oss of freedom of choice and privacy are inherent incidents of confinement...

...of electric gates, tall fences, security booths, remote cameras, motion sensors and roving patrols, but the vast majority of the 60 million people living in the Ninth Circuit will see their' privacy.... 2007) (Kozinski, J., dissenting from the denial of rehearing en banc), our court now proceeds to dismantle the zone of privacy we enjoy in the home's curtilage and in public. The needs of law...enforcement, to which my colleagues seem inclined to refuse nothing, are quickly making personal privacy a distant memory. 1984 may have come a bit later than predicted, but it's here at last...

...legitimately protected by the Fourth Amendment' is implicated by governmental investigative activities unless there is an intrusion into a zone of privacy, into 'the security a man relies upon when he places.... at 2:11-24 (Fernandez). Sabaquie explained that, in that case, the Supreme Court held that "'the interests in human dig[nity] and privacy.... A Fourth Amendment search occurs where, in an attempt to collect information, the government either trespasses on a person's property or violates a person's subjective expectation of privacy that...

...of privacy and security as the home itself. Because Phillips had a subjective expectation of privacy in his garage, and the expectation is one that society recognizes as objectively reasonable, a...only had "a diminished privacy right" and, hence, could not complain "that the police were unlawfully in his home." According to the State, it was "uncontroverted" that the hammer was discovered in...: Officer Tokunaga's discovery of the hammer was inadvertent. Here, Defendant had no reasonable expectation of privacy in his garage during a lawful investigation into...

...on-site inspection is a minimal intrusion and [Palmieri's] project poses a diminished expectation of privacy and . . . is a matter of significant governmental interest." The court also determined...Court found that Palmieri had a "diminished expectation of privacy in his backyard." Fourth, the District Court concluded that the "level of intrusion presented in this case was minimal." Fifth, the...privacy that [Palmieri] had, particularly in light of the minimal intrusion to which he was subjected to." Finally, Judge Seybert found that Palmieri's § 1985 claim failed as a matter of law because...

...Specht the conduct of the police invaded an interest that the Fourth Amendment unquestionably protects: the interest in the privacy of the home. (The court in Specht emphasized this point...body of routine commercial litigation from the state courts to the federal courts. That trivializing, this shift, can be prevented by recognizing the difference between possessory and privacy interests...paint scrapings from the exterior of the vehicle left in the public parking lot, we fail to comprehend what expectation of privacy was infringed." (Footnotes omitted.) The police did, of course, take...

...rights to privacy in their residence and its curtilage...legitimate expectation of privacy in the garden area of their backyard and that in any event the officers were justified in entering the yard and seizing the plants...the proposition that the defendant had any — or defendants had any expectation or reasonable expectation of privacy where the fence as I gather was transparent, that is to say, it was a wire fence...

...to safeguard domestic security must be weighed against the potential danger that unreasonable surveillances pose to individual privacy and free expression. Pp. 314-315...Government to protect the domestic security, and the potential danger posed by unreasonable surveillance to individual privacy and free expression.... If the legitimate need of Government to safeguard domestic security requires the use of electronic surveillance, the question is whether the needs of citizens for privacy and free expression may not...

...expectation of privacy. That reduced expectation of privacy is limited generally to security concerns and prison administration, see Jones v...some privacy right among prisoners, even if that right may be limited to goals related to prison administration and security. As such, absent more specific justification, invasion of an inmate's body..., Marcia Hoffmann, Washington, DC, brief of amicus curiae Elec. Privacy Information Center; Timothy P. O'Toole *, Todd Cox, Alison Flaum, Jennifer Di Toro...

...aspects of state juvenile court procedures, and further, whether there exists a constitutional right of privacy which is violated by disclosure of juvenile court records. The District Court ruled that...use of social histories, it, too, is unconstitutional. In addition, two named members of appellant class demanded $25,000 damages for violation of their constitutional right to privacy...right to privacy. He limited post-adjudication dissemination of social histories to employees of the juvenile court, and established detailed procedures under which those employees could obtain access...

...officials, including law enforcement agents, in order `"to safeguard the privacy and security of individuals against arbitrary invasions...(1973). The basic and essential purpose of these provisions is to protect the individual against unreasonable governmental intrusions into his privacy, whenever and wherever his expectation of privacy...considered is the existence, extent and legitimacy of the citizen's right to expectation of privacy under the circumstances. U.S. v. Chadwick, supra; South Dakota v. Opperman...

.... In detailing the elaborate security measures undertaken to maintain their privacy, defendants rely on the Government's averment that " the...to maintain the security of their organization establish a legitimate expectation of privacy in premises controlled by the organization. As one defendant explains, "[t]he defendants in the present...security measures taken by members to preserve privacy." Consolidated Memorandum, at 6-7. As further explained by. another defendant, [m]oreover, the...

...“that the Fourth Amendment has no applicability to a prison cell” because of the needs of institutional security; “A right of privacy in traditional Fourth Amendment terms is fundamentally incompatible...a detainee has absolutely no reasonable expectation of privacy. Furthermore, the security rationale and “needs of the institution” that...person retains a legitimate expectation of privacy in the contents of his cell phone when that phone is being temporarily stored in a jail property room...

...and Privacy, Hearing before the House Comm. on the Judiciary, 114th Cong. (March 1, 2016); Timothy B. Lee, Apple's Battle with the FBI over iPhone Security, Explained, Vox (Feb. 17, 2016...-time tracking devices by law enforcement, and—recognizing that the Fourth Amendment protects people and not simply areas—that people have an objectively reasonable expectation of privacy in real-time...of standing and this not being his residence, and the Defense's argument that he was at a minimum an overnight guest and has some reasonable expectation of privacy. I don't think I need to reach...

..., they found several cards with Bain's name on them: a Massachusetts driver's license, a social security card, an identification card, an auto...search occurs whenever the government intrudes upon any place in which a person has a "reasonable expectation of privacy." Id. at 360 (Harlan, J., concurring). There are two steps involved in...applying this test. "First, we ask whether the individual, by his conduct, has exhibited an actual expectation of privacy; that is, whether he has shown that he '[sought] to preserve [something] as private...

...of privacy, security and liberty underlying the Fourth Amendment. See Thomas K. Clancy, What Does The Fourth Amendment Protect: Property, Privacy, or Security, 33 Wake Forest L. Rev 307...expectation of privacy that society is prepared to consider is infringed, whereas a seizure of property occurs when "there is some meaningful interference with an individual's possessory interests in...literal sense," found no Fourth Amendment violation "because it was not made in the course of public law enforcement and because it did not invade the Soldals' privacy." Id. at 60...

...exposed themselves to public view by answering the door to receive their food delivery, had no reasonable expectation of privacy against being seen by persons standing in a public hallway; and (2) that...") (emphasis added). A. Payton and the Warrant Requirement The Fourth Amendment's warrant requirement protects one's privacy interest in home or...expectation of privacy. See Maryland v. Dyson, 527 U.S. 465, 466, 119 S.Ct. 2013...

...unconstitutional choice upon these plaintiffs. They must choose now between committing a new crime by refusing to consent and giving up their Fourth Amendment rights to privacy and security in their...face significant hardships and loss of the security and privacy protected by the Fourth Amendment. Varying details of enforcement mechanisms would not affect the basic Fourth Amendment issues...the plaintiff class to "consent" to unspecified intrusions into their privacy, security, and Fourth Amendment rights. B. Magnitude of the Threat of Enforcement...

...Center, Public Perceptions of Privacy and Security in the Post–Snowden Era 34 (Nov. 12, 2014), http:// www. pewinternet. org/ files/ 2014/ 11/ PI_ Public Percepti onsof Privacy_ 111214. pdf...“sensitive” as location data. Pew Research Ctr., Public Perceptions of Privacy and Security in the Post–Snowden Era 34–35 (2014), http:// www. pewinternet. org/ files/ 2014/ 11/ PI_ Public Percep tionsof...court orders issued in accordance with Title II of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, or the Stored Communications Act (“SCA”), we hold the court's admission of the challenged evidence must...

...); Palmer v. Hudson, 697 F.2d at 1224 ("Because of the legitimate demands of prison security, and to a lesser extent a prisoner's diminished expectation of privacy, n...after he escapes. Roy argues that his limited expectation of privacy while in prison is based solely on the nature of incarceration and the need to maintain security...incarcerated individual a limited expectation of privacy, i.e., the prison community's need for security, does not suggest different treatment for an escapee. While incarcerated, the prison...

...State was an "unpleasant invasion of privacy," id., at 602, but the Court pointed out that the New York statute contained "security provisions" that...disclosures" generally allays these privacy concerns. Whalen, supra, at 605; Nixon, supra, at 458-459. The Court in Whalen, relying on New York's "security provisions...Privacy Act's substantial protections. See Whalen, 429 U. S., at 601-602 ("remote possibility" that statutory security provisions will...

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